P. Ricanek*1, S. Vatn1, T. Lindahl2, E. Ciemniejewska2, J. Jahnsen1, C. Casen2, M. H. Vatn1
1Akershus University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Lørenskog/Nordbyhagen, Norway, 2Genetic Analysis AS, Oslo, Norway
The microbiota is considered important for development of intestinal diseases. As part of an IBD character study, faecal microbiota profiles where identified amongst strictly treatment-naïve IBD and symptomatic non-IBD patients from a Norwegian cohort.
Patients where characterised by international criteria, including endoscopy and biopsies. Faecal samples collected before diagnosis where examined on GA-map™ Dysbiosis Test, a 16S rRNA DNA test utilising DNA probes to recognise gut bacteria profiles. In total, 54 probes have been selected for recognition of dysbiosis in IBD/non-IBD patients and normal controls.1
In the study, 92 adult patients were investigated for microbiota profiling.
Table 1 Dysbiosis status
|Dysbiosis||Patients||Age (med)||Female (%)||Non-IBD (%)||IBD (%)||CD (%)||UC (%)|
|No||14 (15%)||19-56 (28)||9/54 (17)||2 (6)||12 (21)||5 (25)||7 (19)|
|Low||32 (35%)||21-62 (34)||15/54 (28)||17 (50)||14 (25)||4 (20)||10 (27)|
|High||46 (50%)||18-69 (34)||30/54 (56)||15 (44)||31 (54)||11 (55)||20 (54)|
|Total||92||18-69 (34)||54/92 (59)||34||57||20||37|
Compared with a normal reference population, the abundance of Faecalbacterium prausnitzii was lower in IBD and non-IBD patients, with 63% and 53%, respectively. Most IBD patients were in the high dysbiosis group, whereas most non-IBD patients were in the low group. For 9 probes representing the 4 genera, Lactobacillus, Clostridiales, Ruminoclostridium, and Bifidobacterium, a significant higher abundance was fond in non-IBD versus IBD patients. In CD and UC, dysbiosis frequency and degree were equally distributed. The UC patients had significantly lower abundance than the CD patients did of the following: genera, Streptococcus, Bacteroides; family, Lachnospiraceae; and class, Bacilli, and 3 more probes for species in the Streptococcus genus showed the same trend, indicating the important effect of Streptococcus. In UC, when comparing E1 (n = 12) to the combined group E2/E3 (n = 9/16) (Montreal classification), 20 probes showed significantly reduced abundance of genera: Streptococcus, Shigella/Eschericia, Prevotella, and Lactobacillus.
The present study gives evidence for reduced abundance of butyrate producing bacteria (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) in both IBD and symptomatic non-IBD patients (IBS), with a greater reduction in IBD. Moreover, IBD in general seems more dysbiotic compared with IBS. The significantly increased abundance of 4 genera might be in accordance with less dysbiosis. Apart from showing increase frequency and degree of dysbiosis for both UC and CD, UC showed significantly lower abundance than CD patients did, based on specific microbial genera. In UC, the increased abundance in E1 compared with E2/E3, more similar to non-IBD, may be explained by the limited extent of disease. The results seem to indicate a role of microbiota in intestinal diseases.
 Casen C, Vebo HC, Sekelja M, et al. Deviations in human gut microbiota: a novel diagnostic test for. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015;42:71–83.