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P160 Can the Lemann index at diagnosis predict the risk of early surgery in Crohn's disease?

Hassine, A.(1);Akkari, I.(1);Mrabet, S.(1);Ben Jazia, E.(1);

(1)Hôpital universitaire Farhat Hached, service de gastro-entérologie, Sousse, Tunisia

Background

Identifying patients with Crohn's disease (CD) with rapid disease progression or at high risk for early surgery is a crucial pillar in the treatment decision to ensure optimal patient management. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between the Lemann index at the time of diagnosis and abdominal surgery in the first year after diagnosis of Crohn's disease and to find the risk factors for early surgery.

Methods

This is a retrospective study of all patients with CD followed in our center over a period of 4 years (January 2016- January 2020), and who were evaluated by endoscopy and MRI at baseline. The Lemann Index is a score that measures cumulative damage to digestive tissue from entero-MRI and endoscopy data. It was calculated by noting the previous surgery, the location and extension of the disease and any intestinal complications. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were studied. Hypothesis tests were applied to identify associations.

Results

112 patients with CD were included in this study, of which 53.6% were female. The mean age at diagnosis was 33.29 years [15-63]. Active smoking was found in 34 patients (30.4%). Regarding the localization of CD, it was ileal (L1 according to the Montreal classification), colonic (L2), and ileocolonic (L3) in respectively 16.1%, 42.9% and 41%. The disease phenotype was inflammatory (B1) in 60.7%, stricturing (B2) in 21.42%, and penetrating (B3) in 17.85%. Anoperineal manifestations were noted in 24 patients. An upper digestive tract was present in 19.6% of patients. The initial flare was judged to be severe in 33.9% of cases, moderate in 55.4% of cases and mild in 10.7% of cases, with a mean CDAI of 305.21 [115-493]. During the first year after diagnosis of CD, 19.6% of patients (n = 22) required surgical treatment. The indications for surgery were: the presence of an intra-abdominal collection (27.3%), severe acute corticosteroid-resistant colitis (18.2%); ileocaecal stenosis resistant to medical treatment (27.3%) or acute bowel obstruction (27.3%). The LI at diagnosis was much higher in the early surgery group: 5.22 +/- 2.65 vs. 2.63 +/- 1.88; with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.01). A severe initial flare as well as a penetrating phenotype were predictors of early abdominal surgery (p = 0.022, p = 0.024, respectively).

Conclusion

According to our study, a high Lemann score at diagnosis correlates well with the risk of early surgery in Crohn's disease. Further, larger-scale studies would be needed to establish the reliability of this test in predicting this risk.

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