P391 Unpacking the different popular diets for pediatric Crohn's disease - concerns around nutritional adequacy
Carmody , E.(1);Haskett , J.(1);Parkinson-McGraw , L.(1);Grover , Z.(1);Martinez , A.(1);Rashid , M.(1);Otley MD MSc FRCPC, A.(1);
(1)IWK Health Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Halifax, Canada;
The first line treatment for inducing remission in pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD) is Exclusive Enteral Nutrition (EEN), where a patient drinks a nutritionally complete formula exclusively for 6 to 12 weeks. Despite the effectiveness of EEN, some patients may experience challenges including taste fatigue, monotony, and a lack of social participation with meals. Given these challenges, patients may turn to popular or fad diets for managing their disease. These diets are often restrictive, eliminating a number of foods and exacerbating the risk of underlying nutrient deficiencies in this patient population.
These case studies involved a nutrient analysis of evidence-based and popular diets for CD, including Crohn’s Disease Exclusion Diet (CDED), CD-TREAT, Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD), IBD Anti-inflammatory Diet (IBD-AID), Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) Diet, Gut and Psychology Syndrome (GAPS) Diet, and low FODMAP. Four cases were selected with mild-moderate CD: 11-year-old and 16-year-old, both male and female. A nutrient analysis of sample menus of each diet was completed using Food Processor version of 11.6.0 by ESHA Research.
ResultsResults were compared to age and gender specific Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), population-based dietary intake data, and Health Canada Dietary Guidelines.
Data are presented for Case 1, 11-year-old male. Findings were comparable to other age and gender cases. As compared to Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs), there was a higher percentage of energy from fats and lower from carbohydrates for the SCD (% kcal, fat and carbohydrate respectively: 59%; 30%), IBD-AID (52%; 37%), AIP Diet (50%; 20%) and GAPS Diet (60%, 21%). Saturated fat intake exceeded recommendations (>10% of energy intake) for CDED (% kcal, 14%) CD Treat (17%), SCD (11%), AIP Diet (15%) and GAPS Diet (20%). Both vitamin D and/or calcium intake were below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) respectively for CDED (% RDA, vitamin D and calcium respectively: 89%; 86%), SCD (23%; 53%), AIP Diet (14%; 23%), low FODMAP Diet (4%, 96%) and GAPS Diet (calcium, 58%). Adolescent females versus males between the ages of 14-18 years may be at greater risk of inadequate nutrient intake, given the general increase in nutrient requirements yet lower caloric needs.
Given the increase in awareness and interest in popular diets for Crohn’s disease, it is imperative that clinicians are aware of the risks of inadequate nutrient intake with restrictive diets.